Cultivation of true (fibre) hemp in Poland
Can any of us plant hemp seeds and harvest after a while? What does cultivation of true hemp in Poland look like? Is it profitable? Is it even legal? Are there any special conditions that need to be met to grow hemp: lamps, greenhouses, rooms, fertilizers? We will talk about how to grow true hemp from the legal perspective, and we will also reveal details about how we cultivate true hemp!
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Cultivation of hemp in Poland – profitability
Does it pay off to grow hemp? Does it make sense to plant hemp in your field or invest in hemp farming at all? The answer lies in the rapidly growing hemp market. Yes, it pays off! First, hemp is not a difficult plant to grow. It’s true that it does require some adaptations, which we will discuss later on, but it is a plant that is extremely easy to grow. It doesn’t need any plant protection products, special fertilizers, or exceptional growing conditions. Quite the opposite. It feels very comfortable in our moderate climate!
Indicatively, 700 to 1000 kg of material per hectare can be harvested for fibre hemp varieties, and 1200 to 1500 kg/ha of seed for oil varieties. Hemp straw and grain yield can also be sold. Thus, the income can amount to as much as PLN 20,000 per hectare and that’s without taking into account subsidies from the European Union for cultivation of fibre hemp! 
Permit for the cultivation of true hemp
Have you ever seen hemp fields? Beautiful, tall, green plants majestically swaying in the wind… Is this legal?! Can you buy hemp seeds at a store, plant them in your own garden or pot and grow true hemp containing CBD for your own use? And if so, does this mean any of us can plant it, like carrots or strawberries?
Is hemp cultivation legal in Poland?
Growing hemp in Poland is completely legal! It really is! These beautiful hemp fields are 100% legal and are cultivated by farmers. But, please note that we are talking about true (fibre) hemp. Other varieties of hemp are not allowed to be sown in Poland. This, among other reasons, is why, for example medical marijuana is still imported from abroad – in Poland, the law strictly controls what kind of hemp, how and by whom can be grown, and defines the conditions that need to be met in order to cultivate the plant. Legally, they can be grown for the benefit of various industries:
- pulp and paper,
- building materials,
- seed production.
Who can grow fibre (true) hemp?
Since the cultivation of fibre hemp in Poland is legal, it would seem that in this case, you can simply plant it and tend your own little hemp field. But you couldn’t be more wrong! Although it is legal to grow, it is still subject to certain legal regulations. In order to legally cultivate hemp, you need to apply for a permit. And you must apply for the permit before you start growing! The conditions for issuance of such a permit are set out by the law, including district law. Important in such case is, for instance, the resolution of the provincial assembly, which defines the exact parameters of crops in a given area.
You can get a cultivation permit if you are a farmer or an entrepreneur. However, you cannot have any past offences related to illegal poppy, cannabis or coca cultivation, theft or taking of narcotics or psychotropic drugs on your record. Growing true hemp: penalties can effectively deprive you of the opportunity to sow it!
What conditions must be met to grow fibre hemp?
To legally grow fibre hemp, certain conditions must be met. The first is to have a cultivation contract. It’s a contract between a farmer and an entrepreneur who has permission from the provincial marshal to engage in the business of buying fibre hemp. This is the permit held by HempKing!
The second condition is that cultivation must be carried out in the surface area specified by the regulations, in designated areas, under a cultivation permit.
What does growing true hemp look like?
Industrial hemp – cultivation: in Poland hemp can be planted in all regions of the country. Poland has the proper conditions for this in its climate. However, a lot also depends on the soil.
Hemp cultivation – soil requirements: from this point of view not every region of Poland will be suitable for growing fibre hemp. The soil must be good, or at least moderately suitable for agriculture. It also cannot be acidic or sandy. The regions where such soils occur are completely unsuitable for hemp cultivation. Hemp is usually sown in mid to late April and continues through early May. Hemp seeds are indifferent to frosts, as frosts do not harm them at all – so in this respect you should not worry about the need to sow at the right time. As we’ve already mentioned, you don’t need to use any plant protection measures against diseases or pests when growing hemp.
Hemp can be harvested in several ways. This can be done using a harvester adapted to harvesting hemp or with a special mower. 
Growing true hemp for personal use?
To grow true hemp at home, you must meet the conditions we’ve already mentioned in our article. But does this mean there’s no chance of sowing hemp for personal use? Not really! All you have to do is get the proper paperwork and stock up on the right seeding products. How to grow hemp for personal use?
- buy certified seeds,
- submit the relevant documents to the municipal office along with an application for a hemp cultivation permit and a commitment to grow hemp solely for personal use. There is a time-limit of 30 days in which the authority should issue a decision,
- once you get your permit, it is a good idea to inform the local police department that you intend to grow hemp and have a permit to do so,
- up to a maximum of 14 days after sowing, you must file a document with the Marshal’s Office committing to processing hemp solely for your personal use – the same document you filed with the municipal office.
In order to properly submit such an application, you must have an invoice for the purchase of certified seeds, a label from the seeds’ packaging, a commitment to process hemp for personal use, proof of payment/transfer to the account applicable in the given municipality, and if the plot on which you want to grow hemp is not yours, also a proof of lease. It’s also a good idea to have the plot owner’s consent to grow true hemp and attach the relevant declaration to the set of documents. 
Polish true hemp varieties
The main division is drawn between true hemp and cannabis, but this division can be broadened. This is because there are varieties of true (fibre) hemp that are grown for different purposes and for different uses. Some are better for oil production, others for manufacturing paper or fibre! There are also typically Polish true hemp varieties registered in the National Register of Varieties of Agricultural, Vegetable and Fruit Plants! What varieties are these?
This variety is the first Polish variety of fibre hemp. This monoecious variety was bred at the Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants. It is popular among CBD oil manufacturers, because it has an interesting and rich cannabinoid profile. You can also get a lot of straw from it as well as lots of seeds! 
This industrial hemp is the youngest variety bred at the aforementioned Institute. It is an oil-type variety that boasts high yields, a low plant height (up to about 2 meters) and a shorter growing time than other varieties. The seeds of this variety have a very good fatty acid ratio! The Henola variety has received approval from the Colorado Department of Agriculture, a centre based in the United States! 
This monoecious hemp variety is ideal for technical use! All because of the high-quality fibre you can obtain from it. Over 1 ton of hemp seeds of this variety can be harvested from one hectare! 
This is another monoecious variety with very high biomass production! It is a late hemp variety, reaching maturity only in late September or early October. Rajan is a variety that has been listed in the Common Catalogue of Cultivated Plant Varieties of the European Union. 
Growing hemp at HempKing – what it looks like in our case!
At HempKing, we have our own contracted farmers who can grow hemp due to the fact that our company holds the permit which we have already discussed. Our farmers plant according to our guidelines and we tend the crops ourselves from seed to harvest, drying and ginning! For us, it’s very important to watch over the whole process. Only in this way can we be 100% sure that we offer you high quality.
We test hemp even before harvest to check phytonutrient concentrations and to assess the quality of the hemp plants.
Hemp varieties used at HempKing
We use five varieties of fibre hemp to manufacture specific products:
- Futura 75, Finola, Felina 32 – for CBD oils and for dried hemp for tea, and seeds
- Santhica 27 – for products with CBG
- Henola – growing hemp for seeds
Checking the soil before starting to grow hemp
At the plantation stage, we also perform an analysis using soil microbiology – we check for harmful fungi, mould, enterobacteria and coliforms. Before we sign a contract with any farmer, we require samples to be sent to us for heavy metal testing. Many farmers, not only from Poland, want to cooperate with us, but their fields are not suitable for our crop quality standards. To work with us, a farmer must meet a number of requirements. We want to obtain only top-quality crops!
Harvest and machinery adapted to hemp cultivation
When it comes to harvesting, we have converted the farm machinery ourselves, so that they can harvest the hemp efficiently and without any difficulties. Not every farm machine is suitable for this! At the time when we launched our business, growing hemp was not that popular. Buying specialized farm machinery is also a considerable expense. Hence the idea to remake the ones we already had. Standard harvesters jam when harvesting such high yields!
We work with farmers from all over Poland, but mainly our crops can be found in our native Podlasie region, as well as in the Lublin Province. It is in these areas that you can find beautiful hemp fields. If you come across them, think that one of them may be ours.
True hemp (Cannabis sativa) – a hemp plant species that includes both fibre hemp and Cannabis indica.
Fibre hemp – a variety of hemp that is legal in Poland, characterized by low THC content and lack of intoxicating properties.